Ability Descriptions

Ability Score Bonuses

Some spells and abilities increase your ability scores.
Ability score increases whose duration is 1 day or less give only temporary bonuses. For every two points of increase to a single ability, apply a +1 bonus to the skills and statistics listed with the relevant ability.

Strength
Increases to your Strength score give you a bonus on Strength-based skill checks, melee attack rolls, and weapon damage rolls (if they rely on Strength). The bonus also applies to your combat maneuver bonus, both to perform manuevers and to resist them.
Dexterity
Increases to your Dexterity score give you a bonus on Dexterity-based skill checks, ranged attack rolls, initiative checks, and Reflex saving throws. The bonus also applies to your Armor Class.
Constitution
Increases to your Constitution score give you a bonus on your Fortitude saving throws. In addition, multiply your total Hit Dice by this bonus and add that amount to your current and total hit points. When the bonus ends, remove this total from your current and total hit points.
Intelligence
Increases to your Intelligence score give you a bonus on Intelligence-based skill checks. This bonus also applies to any spell DCs based on Intelligence.
Wisdom
Increases to your Wisdom score give you a bonus on Wisdom-based skill checks and Will saving throws. This bonus also applies to any spell DCs based on Wisdom.
Charisma
Increases to your Charisma score give you a bonus on Charisma-based skill checks. This bonus also applies to any spell DCs based on Charisma.

Ability bonuses with a duration greater than 1 day actually increase the relevant ability score after 24 hours.

Modify all skills and statistics related to that ability. This might cause you to gain skill points, hit points, and other bonuses. These bonuses should be noted separately in case they are removed.

Ability Score Damage and Ability Drain

Diseases, poisons, spells, and other abilities can all deal damage directly to your ability scores. This damage does not actually reduce your ability, but it does apply a penalty to many of the skills and statistics that are based on that ability.

For every two points of damage you take to a single ability, apply a –1 penalty to skills and statistics listed with the relevant ability. If the amount of ability damage you have taken equals or Exceeds your ability score, you immediately fall unconscious until the damage is less than your ability score. The only exception to this is your Constitution score. If the damage to your Constitution is equal to or greater than your Constitution score, you die.

Unless otherwise noted, damage to your ability scores is healed at the rate of 1 per day to each ability score that has been damaged.

Some spells and abilities cause you to take an ability penalty for a limited amount of time. While in effect, these penalties function just like ability damage, but they cannot cause you to fall unconscious or die. In effect, penalties cannot decrease your ability score to less than one.

Strength
Damage to your Strength score causes you to take penalties on Strength-based skill checks, melee attack rolls, and weapon damage rolls (if they rely on Strength). The penalty also applies to your combat maneuver bonus.
Dexterity
Damage to your Dexterity score causes you to take penalties on Dexterity-based skill checks, ranged attack rolls, initiative checks, and Reflex saving throws. The penalty also applies to your Armor Class.
Constitution
Damage to your Constitution score causes you to take penalties on your Fortitude saving throws. In addition, multiply your total Hit Dice by this penalty and subtract that amount from your current and total hit points.
Intelligence
Damage to your Intelligence score causes you to take penalties on Intelligence-based skill checks. This penalty also applies to any spell DCs based off Intelligence.
Wisdom
Damage to your Wisdom score causes you to take penalties on Wisdom-based skill checks and Will saving throws. This penalty also applies to any spell DCs based off Wisdom.
Charisma
Damage to your Charisma score causes you to take penalties on Charisma-based skill checks. This penalty also applies to any spell DCs based off Charisma.

Ability drain actually reduces the relevant ability score.

Modify all skills and statistics related to that ability. This might cause you to lose skill points, hit points, and other bonuses. Ability drain can be healed through the use of spells such as restoration.

Afflictions

From curses to poisons to diseases, there are a number of afflictions that can affect a creature. While each of these afflictions has a different effect, they all function using the same basic system. All afflictions grant a saving throw when they are contracted. If successful, the creature does not suffer from the affliction and does not need to make any further rolls. If the saving throw is a failure, the creature falls victim to the affliction and must deal with its effects.
Afflictions require a creature to make a saving throw after a period of time to avoid taking certain penalties.
With most afflictions, if a number of saving throws are made consecutively, the affliction is removed and no further saves are necessary. Some afflictions, usually supernatural ones, cannot be cured through saving throws alone and require the aid of powerful magic to remove. Each affliction is presented as a short block of information to help you better adjudicate its results.

Name
This is the name of the affliction.
Level
Afflictions have a level that denotes what level of adventurers might face such a challenge. Overcoming afflictions does not result in experience points, although defeating the trap or creature that caused them awards experience points as normal. The affliction’s level is followed by its type, such as curse, disease, or poison, and the means by which it is contracted.
Save
This gives the type of save necessary to avoid contracting the affliction as well as the DC of that save. Unless otherwise noted, this is also the save to avoid the affliction’s effects once it is contracted. This is also the DC of any caster level checks needed to end the affliction through magic, such as remove curse or neutralize poison.
Frequency
This is how often the save must be made after the affliction has been contracted. If the affliction is not ongoing, the frequency also notes how many times the affliction causes the creature to make a saving throw. After these saves have been rolled, the affliction is cured, regardless of how many saves were successful. This is called a limited frequency and the number is noted as “(x)” directly after the frequency.
Some afflictions have a variable amount of time before they set in, such as diseases. While the creature must make an initial save to avoid contracting the affliction, additional saves and the effects of failing a save do not take place until after a variable incubation time. When an affliction has such an incubation time, it is noted by a variable period of time, followed by a “/” and the normal frequency.
Effect
This is the effect that the character suffers if he fails his saving throw against the affliction. Most afflictions cause ability damage or hit point damage. These effects are cumulative, but they can be cured normally. Other afflictions cause the creature to take penalties or other effects. These effects are sometimes cumulative, with the rest only affecting the creature if it failed its most recent save. Some afflictions have different effects after the first save is failed. These afflictions have an initial effect, which occurs when the first save is failed, and a secondary effect, when additional saves are failed (separated by a “/”).
Cure
This tells you how the affliction is cured. Commonly, this is a number of saving throws that must be made consecutively. If the affliction has a limited frequency, it still might be cured prematurely if enough saving throws are made. Some afflictions can only be cured through powerful spells, such as neutralize poison and remove curse. These are denoted by a “—”.

Curses

Careless rogues plundering a tomb, drunken hisoes insulting a powerful wizard, and foolhardy adventurers who pick up ancient swords all might suffer from curses.
These magic afflictions can have a wide variety of effects, from a simple penalty to most checks to transforming the victim into a toad. Some even cause the afflicted to slowly rot away, leaving nothing behind but dust. Unlike other afflictions, most curses cannot be cured through a number of successful saving throws. Curses can be cured through magic, however, usually via spells such as remove curse and break enchantment. While some cause a progressive deterioration, others inflict a static penalty from the moment they are contracted, neither fading over time nor growing worse.
The following samples present just some of the possibilities when creating curses.


Armor of Rage Curse

Level 7 curse, cursed item; Save Will DC 16

Effects

Frequency whenever the target is injured; Effect target flies into a rage, taking a –2 penalty to AC and attacking the nearest creature (friend or foe) for 1d4 rounds; Cure


Baleful Polymorph Spell

Level 9 curse, spell; Save Fortitude DC 17 negates, Will DC 17 partial

Effects

Frequency —; Effect transformed target into a lizard; Cure


Bestow Curse Trap

Level 5 curse, trap; Save Will DC 14

Effects

Frequency —; Effect –6 penalty to Strength; Cure


Curse of the Ages Trap

Level 9 curse, trap; Save Will DC 17

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect age 1 year; Cure


Mummy Rot

Level 5 curse, disease, injury; Save Fortitude DC 16

Effects

Frequency 1 min/1 day; Effect 1d6 Con damage and 1d6 Cha damage; Cure mummy rot can only be cured by successfully casting both remove curse and remove disease within 1 minute of each other.


Werewolf Lycanthropy

Level 3 curse, injury; Save Fortitude DC 15 negates, Will DC 15 to avoid effects

Effects

Frequency on the night of every full moon or whenever the target is injured; Effect target transforms into a wolf under the GM’s control until the next morning; Cure


Diseases

From a widespread plague to the bite of a dire rat, disease is a serious threat to common folk and adventurers alike. Diseases almost never have a limited frequency, and some have a variable amount of time before they begin to take effect, known as the incubation period.
Diseases only have the listed effect when a saving throw after the f irst is failed. Most diseases can be cured by a number of consecutive saving throws or by spells such as remove disease.
The following samples represent just some of the possibilities when creating diseases.


Blinding Sicknes

Level 8 disease, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 16

Effects

Frequency 1d3 days/1 day; Effect 1d4 Str damage, if more than 2 Str damage, target must make an additional Fort save or be permanently blinded; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Cackle Fever

Level 7 disease, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 16

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect 1d6 Wis damage; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Demon Fever

Level 9 disease, injury; Save Fortitude DC 18

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect 1d6 Con damage, target must make a second Fort save or 1 point of the damage is drain instead; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Devil Chills

Level 5 disease, injury; Save Fortitude DC 14

Effects

Frequency 1d4 days/1 day; Effect 1d4 Str damage; Cure 3 consecutive saves


Filth Fever

Level 2 disease, injury; Save Fortitude DC 12

Effects

Frequency 1d3 days/1 day; Effect 1d3 Dex damage and 1d3 Con damage; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Mindfire

Level 1 disease, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 12

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect 1d4 Int damage; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Red Ache

Level 6 disease, injury; Save Fortitude DC 15

Effects

Frequency 1d3 days/1 day; Effect 1d6 Str damage; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Shakes

Level 4 disease, contact; Save Fortitude DC 13

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect 1d8 Dex damage; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Slimy Doom

Level 7 disease, contact; Save Fortitude DC 14

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect 1d4 Con damage, target must make a second Fort save or 1 point of the damage is drain instead; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Poison

No other affliction is so prevalent as poison. From the fangs of a viper to the ichor-stained assassin’s blade, poison is a constant threat. Unless otherwise noted, poisons have a frequency of 1 round and deal ability score damage for a limited number of rounds until a saving throw is made. In addition, many poisons have different initial and secondary effects. Poisons can be cured by successful saving throws and spells such as neutralize poison.
The following samples represent just some of the possibilities when creating poisons.


Arsenic

Level 4 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 13

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 1 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Black Adder Venom

Level 3 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 11

Effects

Frequency 1 round (6); Effect 1 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Black Lotus Extract

Level 14 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 20

Effects

Frequency 1 round (7); Effect 3 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Bloodroot

Level 8 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 12

Effects

Frequency 1 round (3); Effect 1 Con damage and 1 Wis damage; Cure 1 save


Blue Whinnis

Level 5 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 14

Effects

Frequency 1 round (2); Effect 1 Con damage/unconsciousness for 1d3 hours; Cure 1 save


Burnt Othur Fumes

Level 8 poison, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 18

Effects

Frequency 1 round (4); Effect 1 Con drain/3 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Dark Reaver Powder

Level 7 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 18

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Con damage/1 Con damage and 1 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Deathblade

Level 8 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 20

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Dragon Bile

Level 11 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 26

Effects

Frequency 1 round (3); Effect 3 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Drow Poison

Level 3 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 13

Effects

Frequency 1 minute (1); Effect unconsciousness for 1 minute/ unconsciousness for 2d4 hours; Cure 1 save


Giant Wasp Poison

Level 4 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 18

Effects

Frequency 1 round (4); Effect 1 Dex damage; Cure 1 save


Greenblood Oil

Level 2 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 13

Effects

Frequency 1 round (2); Effect 1 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Id Moss

Level 5 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 14

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Int damage; Cure 1 save


Insanity Mist

Level 5 poison, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 15

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Wis damage; Cure 1 save


King’s Sleep

Level 12 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 19

Effects

Frequency 1 day; Effect 1 Con drain; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Large Scorpion Venom

Level 4 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 18

Effects

Frequency 1 round (4); Effect 1 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Lich Dust

Level 6 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 17

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Malyass Root Paste

Level 4 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 16

Effects

Frequency 1 round (6); Effect 1 Dex damage; Cure 1 save


Medium Spider Venom

Level 2 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 14

Effects

Frequency 1 round (3); Effect 1 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Nightmare Vapor

Level 11 poison, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 20

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 1 Wis damage and 1 Wis drain; Cure 2 consecutive saves


Nitharit

Level 6 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 13

Effects

Frequency 1 round (6); Effect 0/2 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Oil of Taggit

Level 6 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 15

Effects

Frequency 1 minute (1); Effect 0/unconsciousness for 1d3 hours; Cure 1 save


Purple Worm Poison

Level 10 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 24

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Sassone Leaf Residue

Level 4 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 16

Effects

Frequency 1 round (4); Effect 1d6 hit points; Cure 1 save


Shadow Essence

Level 6 poison, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 17

Effects

Frequency 1 round (7); Effect 1 Str drain/1 Str damage; Cure 1 save


Small Centipede Poison

Level 1 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 11

Effects

Frequency 1 round (2); Effect 1 Dex damage; Cure 1 save


Striped Toadstool

Level 4 poison, ingested; Save Fortitude DC 11

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 1 Wis damage/2 Wis damage plus 1 Int damage; Cure 1 save


Tears of Death

Level 17 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 22

Effects

Frequency 1 minute (5); Effect 1d6 Con damage; Cure


Terinav Root

Level 6 poison, contact; Save Fortitude DC 16

Effects

Frequency 1 round (5); Effect 2 Dex damage; Cure 1 save


Ungol Dust

Level 6 poison, inhaled; Save Fortitude DC 15

Effects

Frequency 1 round (3); Effect 1 Cha damage/1 Con damage and 1 Cha drain; Cure 1 save


Wyvern Poison

Level 9 poison, injury; Save Fortitude DC 17

Effects

Frequency 1 round (7); Effect 2 Con damage; Cure 1 save


Blindsight and Blindsense

Blindsight

Some creatures have blindsight, the extraordinary ability to use a nonvisual sense (or a combination of such senses) to operate effectively without vision. Such sense may include sensitivity to vibrations, acute scent, keen hearing, or echolocation.
This ability makes invisibility and concealment (even magical darkness) irrelevant to the creature (though it still can’t see ethereal creatures). This ability operates out to a range specified in the creature description.

  • Blindsight never allows a creature to distinguish color or visual contrast. A creature cannot read with blindsight.
  • Blindsight does not subject a creature to gaze attacks (even though darkvision does).
  • Blinding attacks do not penalize creatures using blindsight.
  • Deafening attacks thwart blindsight if it relies on hearing.
  • Blindsight works underwater but not in a vacuum.
  • Blindsight negates displacement and blur effects.

Blindsense

Other creatures have blindsense, a lesser ability that lets the creature notice things it cannot see, but without the precision of blindsight. The creature with blindsense usually does not need to make Perception checks to notice and locate creatures within range of its blindsense ability, provided that it has line of effect to that creature. Any opponent that cannot be seen has total concealment (50% miss chance) against a creature with blindsense, and the blindsensing creature still has the normal miss chance when attacking foes that have concealment.
Visibility still affects the movement of a creature with blindsense. A creature with blindsense is still denied its Dexterity bonus to Armor Class against attacks from creatures it cannot see.

Charm and Compulsion

Many abilities and spells can cloud the minds of characters and monsters, leaving them unable to tell friend from foe—or worse yet, deceiving them into thinking that their former friends are now their worst enemies.

Two general types of enchantments affect characters and creatures - charms and compulsions.

Charming another creature gives the charming character the ability to befriend and suggest courses of actions to his minion, but the servitude is not absolute or mindless. Charms of this type include the various charm spells and some monster abilities. Essentially, a charmed character retains free will but makes choices according to a skewed view of the world.

A charmed creature doesn’t gain any magical ability to understand his new friend’s language. – A charmed character retains his original alignment and allegiances, generally with the exception that he now regards the charming creature as a dear friend and will give great weight to his suggestions and directions.

  • A charmed character fights his former allies only if they threaten his new friend, and even then he uses the least lethal means at his disposal as long as these tactics show any possibility of success ( just as he would in a fight between two actual friends).
  • A charmed character is entitled to an opposed Charisma check against his master in order to resist instructions or commands that would make him do something he wouldn’t normally do even for a close friend. If he succeeds, he decides not to go along with that order but remains charmed.
  • A charmed character never obeys a command that is obviously suicidal or grievously harmful to him.
  • If the charming creature commands his minion to do something that the influenced character would be violently opposed to, the subject may attempt a new saving throw to break free of the influence altogether.
  • A charmed character who is openly attacked by the creature who charmed him or by that creature’s apparent allies is automatically freed of the spell or effect.

Compulsion is a different matter altogether. A compulsion overrides the subject’s free will in some way or simply changes the way the subject’s mind works. A charm makes the subject a friend of the caster; a compulsion makes the subject obey the caster.

Regardless of whether a character is charmed or compelled, he won’t volunteer information or tactics that his master doesn’t ask for.

Damage Reduction

Some magic creatures have the supernatural ability to instantly heal damage from weapons or to ignore blows altogether as though they were invulnerable.

The numerical part of a creature’s damage reduction (or DR) is the amount of damage the creature ignores from normal attacks. Usually, a certain type of weapon can overcome this reduction (see Overcoming DR). This information is separated from the damage reduction number by a slash.

Whenever damage reduction completely negates the damage from an attack, it also negates most special effects that accompany the attack, such as injury type poison, a monk’s stunning, and injury type disease. Damage reduction does not negate touch attacks, energy damage dealt along with an attack, or energy drains. Nor does it affect poisons or diseases delivered by inhalation, ingestion, or contact.

Attacks that deal no damage because of the target’s damage reduction do not disrupt spells.

Spells, spell-like abilities, and energy attacks (even nonmagical fire) ignore damage reduction.

Sometimes damage reduction is instant healing. Sometimes damage reduction represents the creature’s tough hide or body. In either case, characters can see that conventional attacks don’t work.

If a creature has damage reduction from more than one source, the two forms of damage reduction do not stack. Instead, the creature gets the benefit of the best damage reduction in a given situation.

Overcoming DR

Damage reduction may be overcome by special materials, by magic weapons (any weapon with a +1 or higher enhancement bonus, not counting the enhancement from masterwork quality), certain types of weapons (such as slashing or bludgeoning), and weapons imbued with an alignment. If a dash follows the slash, then the damage reduction is effective against any attack that does not ignore damage reduction.

Ammunition fired from a projectile weapon with an enhancement bonus of +1 or higher is treated as a magic weapon for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction. Similarly, ammunition fired from a projectile weapon with an alignment gains the alignment of that projectile weapon (in addition to any alignment it may already have).

Weapons with an enhancement bonus of +3 or greater can ignore some types of damage reduction, regardless of their actual material or alignment. The following table shows what type of enhancement bonus is needed to overcome some common types of damage reduction.

DR Type Weapon Enhancement Bonus Equivalent
cold iron/silver +3
adamantine* +4
alignment-based +5
* Note that this does not give the ability to ignore hardness, like an actual adamantine weapon does

Darkvision

Darkvision is the extraordinary ability to see with no light source at all, out to a range specified for the creature. Darkvision is black and white only (colors cannot be discerned). It does not allow characters to see anything that they could not see otherwise—invisible objects are still invisible, and illusions are still visible as what they seem to be. Likewise, darkvision subjects a creature to gaze attacks normally. The presence of light does not spoil darkvision.

Death Attacks

In most cases, a death attack allows the victim a Fortitude save to avoid the effect, but if the save fails, the character dies instantly. – Raise dead doesn’t work on someone killed by a death attack. – Death attacks slay instantly. A victim cannot be made stable and thereby kept alive. – In case it matters, a dead character, no matter how he died, has –10 hit points. – The spell death ward protects a character against these attacks.

Energy Drain

Some spells and a number of undead creatures have the ability to bestow negative levels. These levels cause a character to take a number of penalties, but they never result in actual level loss.

For each negative level a creature has, it takes a cumulative –1 penalty on all ability checks, attack rolls, combat maneuver checks, saving throws, and skill checks. In addition, the creature reduces its current and total hit points by 5 for each negative level it possesses. The creature is also treated as one level lower for the purpose oflevel-dependent variables (such as spellcasting) for each negative level possessed. Spellcasters do not lose any prepared spells or slots as a result of negative levels. If a creature’s negative levels equals or exceeds its total HitDice, it dies.

A creature with negative levels receives a new saving throw to remove the negative level each day. The DC of this save is the same as the effect that caused the negative levels.

Some abilities and spells (such as raise dead) bestow permanent level drain on a creature. These are treated just like negative levels, but they do not allow a new save each day to remove them. Level drain can be removed through spells like restoration. These permanent negative levels remain after a dead creature is restored to life. A creature whose permanent negative levels equals its Hit Dice cannot be brought back to life through spells like raise dead and resurrection without also receiving a restoration spell, cast the round after it is restored to life.

Energy Immunity

A creature with energy immunity never takes damage from that energy type. If a creature has fire immunity, it also has vulnerability to cold. If a creature has cold immunity, it also has vulnerability to fire. Vulnerability means the creature takes half again as much (+50%) damage as normal from that energy type, regardless of whether a saving throw is allowed or if the save is a success or failure.

Fear

Spells, magic items, and certain monsters can affect characters with fear. In most cases, the character makes a Will saving throw to resist this effect, and a failed roll means that the character is shaken, frightened, or panicked.

Shaken

Characters who are shaken take a –2 penalty on attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks.

Frightened

Characters who are frightened are shaken, and in addition they flee from the source of their fear as quickly as they can. They can choose the path of their flight. Other than that stipulation, once they are out of sight (or hearing) of the source of their fear, they can act as they want. If the duration of their fear continues, however, characters can be forced to flee if the source of their fear presents itself again. Characters unable to flee can fight (though they are still shaken).

Panicked

Characters who are panicked are shaken, and they run away from the source of their fear as quickly as they can. Other than running away from the source, their path is random. They flee from all other dangers that confront them rather than facing those dangers. Once they are out of sight (or hearing) of any source of danger, they can act as they want. Panicked characters cower if they are prevented from fleeing.

Becoming Even More Fearful

Fear effects are cumulative.

A shaken character who is made shaken again becomes frightened, and a shaken character who is made frightened becomes panicked instead. A frightened character who is made shaken or frightened becomes panicked instead.

Invisibility

The ability to move about unseen is not foolproof. While they can’t be seen, invisible creatures can be heard, smelled, or felt.

Invisibility makes a creature undetectable by vision, including darkvision.

Invisibility does not, by itself, make a creature immune to critical hits, but it does make the creature immune to extra damage from being a ranger’s favored enemy and from sneak attacks.

A creature can generally notice the presence of an active invisible creature within 30 feet with a DC 20 Perception check. The observer gains a hunch that “something’s there” but can’t see it or target it accurately with an attack. It’s practically impossible (+20 DC) to pinpoint an invisible creature’s location with a Perception check, and even if a character succeeds on such a check, the invisible creature still benefits from total concealment (50% miss chance). There are a number of modifiers that can be applied to this DC if the invisible creature is moving or engaged in a noisy activity.

Perception DC Modifiers
Invisible Creature Is… DC
In combat or speaking –20
Moving at half speed –5
Moving at full speed –10
Running or charging –20
Using Stealth Stealth check +40
Some distance away +1 per 10 feet
Behind an obstacle (door) +5
Behind an obstacle (stone wall) +15

A creature can grope about to find an invisible creature. A character can make a touch attack with his hands or a weapon into two adjacent 5-foot squares using a standard action. If an invisible target is in the designated area, there is a 50% miss chance on the touch attack. If successful, the groping character deals no damage but has successfully pinpointed the invisible creature’s current location. If the invisible creature moves, its location, obviously, is once again unknown.

If an invisible creature strikes a character, the character struck still knows the location of the creature that struck him (until, of course, the invisible creature moves). The only exception is if the invisible creature has a reach greater than 5 feet. In this case, the struck character knows the general location of the creature but has not pinpointed the exact location.

If a character tries to attack an invisible creature whose location he has pinpointed, he attacks normally, but the invisible creature still benef its from full concealment (and thus a 50% miss chance). A particularly large and slow invisible creature might get a smaller miss chance.

If a character tries to attack an invisible creature whose location he has not pinpointed, have the player choose the space where the character will direct the attack. If the invisible creature is there, conduct the attack normally. If the enemy’s not there, roll the miss chance as if it were there, don’t let the player see the result, and tell him that the character has missed. That way the player doesn’t know whether the attack missed because the enemy’s not there or because you successfully rolled the miss chance.

If an invisible character picks up a visible object, the object remains visible. One could coat an invisible object with flour to at least keep track of its position (until the flour falls off or blows away). An invisible creature can pick up a small visible item and hide it on his person (tucked in a pocket or behind a cloak) and render it effectively invisible.

Invisible creatures leave tracks. They can be tracked normally. Footprints in sand, mud, or other soft surfaces can give enemies clues to an invisible creature’s location.
An invisible creature in the water displaces water, revealing its location. The invisible creature, however, is still hard to see and benefits from concealment.

A creature with the scent ability can detect an invisible creature as it would a visible one.

A creature with the Blind-Fight feat has a better chance to hit an invisible creature. Roll the miss chance twice, and he misses only if both rolls indicate a miss. (Alternatively, make one 25% miss chance roll rather than two 50% miss chance rolls.)

A creature with blindsight can attack (and otherwise interact with) creatures regardless of invisibility.

An invisible burning torch still gives offlight, as does an invisible object with a light spell (or similar spell) cast upon it.

Ethereal creatures are invisible. Since ethereal creatures are not materially present, Perception checks, Scent, Blind-Fight, and blindsight don’t help locate them. Incorporeal creatures are often invisible. Scent, Blind-Fight, and blindsight don’t help creatures find or attack invisible, incorporeal creatures, but Perception checks can help.

Invisible creatures cannot use gaze attacks.

Invisibility does not thwart detect spells.

Since some creatures can detect or even see invisible creatures, it is helpful to be able to hide even when invisible.

Low-Light Vision

Characters with low-light vision have eyes that are so sensitive to light that they can see twice as far as normal in dim light. Low-light vision is color vision. A spellcaster with low-light vision can read a scroll as long as even the tiniest candle flame is next to him as a source oflight.

Characters with low-light vision can see outdoors on a moonlit night as well as they can during the day.

++Paralysis
Some monsters and spells have the supernatural or spell-like ability to paralyze their victims, immobilizing them through magical means. Paralysis from toxins is discussed in the Afflictions section.

A paralyzed character cannot move, speak, or take any physical action. He is rooted to the spot, frozen and helpless.

Not even friends can move his limbs. He may take purely mental actions, such as casting a spell with no components.

A winged creature flying in the air at the time that it becomes paralyzed cannot flap its wings and falls. A swimmer can’t swim and may drown.

Resistance to Energy

A creature with resistance to energy has the ability (usually extraordinary) to ignore some damage of a certain type each round, but it does not have total immunity.

Each resistance ability is defined by what energy type it resists and how many points of damage are resisted.

It doesn’t matter whether the damage has a mundane or magical source.

When resistance completely negates the damage from an energy attack, the attack does not disrupt a spell. This resistance does not stack with the resistance that a spell might provide.

Scent

This extraordinary ability lets a creature detect approaching enemies, sniff out hidden foes, and track by sense of smell.

A creature with the scent ability can detect opponents by sense of smell, generally within 30 feet. If the opponent is upwind, the range is 60 feet. If it is downwind, the range is 15 feet. Strong scents, such as smoke or rotting garbage, can be detected at twice the ranges noted above. Overpowering scents, such as skunk musk or troglodyte stench, can be detected at three times these ranges.

The creature detects another creature’s presence but not its specif ic location. Noting the direction of the scent is a move action. If the creature moves within 5 feet (1 square) of the scent’s source, the creature can pinpoint that source.

A creature with the Survival skill and the scent ability can follow tracks by smell, making a Survival check to find or follow a track. A creature with the scent ability can attempt to follow tracks using Survival untrained. The typical DC for a fresh trail is 10. The DC increases or decreases depending on how strong the quarry’s odor is, the number of creatures, and the age of the trail. For each hour that the trail is cold, the DC increases by 2. The ability otherwise follows the rules for the Track feat. Creatures tracking by scent ignore the effects of surface conditions and poor visibility.

Creatures with the scent ability can identify familiar odors just as humans do familiar sights.

Water, particularly running water, ruins a trail for air-breathing creatures. Water-breathing creatures that have the scent ability, however, can use it in the water easily.

False, powerful odors can easily mask other scents. The presence of such an odor completely spoils the ability to properly detect or identify creatures, and the base Survival DC to track becomes 20 rather than 10.

Spell Resistance

Spell resistance is a special defensive ability. If your spell is being resisted by a creature with spell resistance, you must make a caster level check (1d20 + caster level) at least equal to the creature’s spell resistance for the spell to affect that creature. The defender’s spell resistance is like an Armor Class against magical attacks. Include any adjustments to your caster level to this caster level check.

The Spell Resistance entry and the descriptive text of a spell description tell you whether spell resistance protects creatures from the spell. In many cases, spell resistance applies only when a resistant creature is targeted by the spell, not when a resistant creature encounters a spell that is already in place.

The terms “object” and “harmless” mean the same thing for spell resistance as they do for saving throws. A creature with spell resistance must voluntarily lower the resistance (a standard action) in order to be affected by a spell noted as harmless. In such a case, you do not need to make the caster level check described above.

Turn Resistance

Creatures with turn resistance gain a bonus on Will saves made against channeled energy. They add their bonus to any Will saves made to halve the damage and resist the effect.