Description

ALIGNMENT

A creature’s general moral and personal attitudes are represented by its alignment: lawful good, neutral good, chaotic good, lawful neutral, neutral, chaotic neutral, lawful evil, neutral evil, or chaotic evil.

Alignment is a tool for developing your character’s identity. It is not a straitjacket for restricting your character. Each alignment represents a broad range of personality types or personal philosophies, so two characters of the same alignment can still be quite different from each other. In addition, few people are completely consistent.

Good Versus Evil

Good characters and creatures protect innocent life. Evil characters and creatures debase or destroy innocent life, whether for fun or profit.

“Good” implies altruism, respect for life, and a concern for the dignity of sentient beings. Good characters make personal sacrifices to help others.

“Evil” implies hurting, oppressing, and killing others. Some evil creatures simply have no compassion for others and kill without qualms if doing so is convenient. Others actively pursue evil, killing for sport or out of duty to some evil deity or master.

People who are neutral with respect to good and evil have compunctions against killing the innocent, but lack the commitment to make sacrif ices to protect or help others.

Animals and other creatures incapable of moral action are neutral rather than good or evil. Even deadly vipers and tigers that eat people are neutral because they lack the capacity for morally right or wrong behavior.

Law Versus Chaos

Lawful characters tell the truth, keep their word, respect authority, honor tradition, and judge those who fall short of their duties. Chaotic characters follow their consciences, resent being told what to do, favor new ideas over tradition, and do what they promise if they feel like it.

“Law” implies honor, trustworthiness, obedience to authority, and reliability. On the downside, lawfulness can include close-mindedness, reactionary adherence to tradition, judgmental, and a lack of adaptability. Those who consciously promote lawfulness say that only lawful behavior creates a society in which people can depend on each other and make the right decisions in full confidence that others will act as they should.

“Chaos” implies freedom, adaptability, and flexibility. On the downside, chaos can include recklessness, resentment toward legitimate authority, arbitrary actions, and irresponsibility. Those who promote chaotic behavior say that only unfettered personal freedom allows people to express themselves fully and lets society benef it from the potential that its individuals have within them.

Someone who is neutral with respect to law and chaos has a normal respect for authority and feels neither a compulsion to obey nor a compulsion to rebel. She is honest, but can be tempted into lying or deceiving others.

Animals and other creatures incapable of moral action are neutral. Dogs may be obedient and cats free-spirited, but they do not have the moral capacity to be truly lawful or chaotic.

The Nine Alignments

Nine distinct alignments define all the possible combinations of the lawful–chaotic axis with the good–evil axis. Each alignment description below depicts a typical character of that alignment. Remember that individuals vary from this norm, and that a given character may act more or less in accord with his alignment from day to day. Use these descriptions as guidelines, not as scripts.

The first six alignments, lawful good through chaotic neutral, are the standard alignments for player characters. The three evil alignments are usually for monsters and villains.

Lawful Good, “Crusader”

A lawful good character acts as a good person is expected or required to act. She combines a commitment to oppose evil with the discipline to fight relentlessly. She tells the truth, keeps her word, helps those in need, and speaks out against injustice. A lawful good character hates to see the guilty go unpunished.

Lawful good is the best alignment you can be because it combines honor and compassion.

Neutral Good, “Benefactor”

A neutral good character does the best that a good person can do. He is devoted to helping others. He works with kings and magistrates but does not feel beholden to them.

Neutral good is the best alignment you can be because it means doing what is good without bias for or against order.

Chaotic Good, “Rebel”

A chaotic good character acts as his conscience directs him with little regard for what others expect of him. He makes his own way, but he’s kind and benevolent. He believes in goodness and right but has little use for laws and regulations. He hates it when people try to intimidate others and tell them what to do. He follows his own moral compass, which, although good, may not agree with that of society.

Chaotic good is the best alignment you can be because it combines a good heart with a free spirit.

Lawful Neutral, “Judge”

A lawful neutral character acts as law, tradition, or a personal code directs her. Order and organization are paramount to her. She may believe in personal order and live by a code or standard, or she may believe in order for all and favor a strong, organized government.

Lawful neutral is the best alignment you can be because it means you are reliable and honorable without being a zealot.

Neutral, “Undecided”

A neutral character does what seems to be a good idea. She doesn’t feel strongly one way or the other when it comes to good vs. evil or law vs. chaos. Most neutral characters exhibit a lack of conviction or bias rather than a commitment to neutrality. Such a character thinks of good as better than evil—after all, she would rather have good neighbors and rulers than evil ones. Still, she’s not personally committed to upholding good in any abstract or universal way.

Some neutral characters, on the other hand, commit themselves philosophically to neutrality. They see good, evil, law, and chaos as prejudices and dangerous extremes. They advocate the middle way of neutrality as the best, most balanced road in the long run.

Neutral is the best alignment you can be because it means you act naturally, without prejudice or compulsion.

Chaotic Neutral, “Free Spirit”

A chaotic neutral character follows his whims. He is an individualist first and
last. He values his own liberty but doesn’t strive to protect others’ freedom. He avoids authority, resents restrictions, and challenges traditions. A chaotic neutral character does not intentionally disrupt organizations as part of a campaign of anarchy. To do so, he would have to be motivated either by good (and a desire to liberate others) or evil (and a desire to make those different from himself suffer). A chaotic neutral character may be unpredictable, but his behavior is not totally random. He is not as likely to jump off a bridge as to cross it.

Chaotic neutral is the best alignment you can be because it represents true freedom from both society’s restrictions and a do-gooder’s zeal.

Lawful Evil, “Dominator”

A lawful evil villain methodically takes what he wants within the limits of his code of conduct without regard for whom it hurts. He cares about tradition, loyalty, and order, but not about freedom, dignity, or life. He plays by the rules but without mercy or compassion. He is comfortable in a hierarchy and would like to rule, but is willing to serve. He condemns others not according to their actions but according to race, religion, homeland, or social rank. He is loath to break laws or promises.

This reluctance comes partly from his nature and partly because he depends on order to protect himself from those who oppose him on moral grounds. Some lawful evil villains have particular taboos, such as not killing in cold blood (but having underlings do it) or not letting children come to harm (if it can be helped). They imagine that these compunctions put them above unprincipled villains.
Some lawful evil people and creatures commit themselves to evil with a zeal like that of a crusader committed to good. Beyond being willing to hurt others for their own ends, they take pleasure in spreading evil as an end unto itself. They may also see doing evil as part of a duty to an evil deity or master.

Lawful evil is sometimes called “diabolical,” because devils are the epitome oflawful evil.

Lawful evil is the most dangerous alignment because it represents methodical, intentional, and frequently successful evil.

Neutral Evil, “Malefactor”

A neutral evil villain does whatever she can get away with. She is out for herself, pure and simple. She sheds no tears for those she kills, whether for profit, sport, or convenience. She has no love of order and holds no illusions that following laws, traditions, or codes would make her any better or more noble. On the other hand, she doesn’t have the restless nature or love of conflict that a chaotic evil villain has.

Some neutral evil villains hold up evil as an ideal, committing evil for its own sake. Most often, such villains are devoted to evil deities or secret societies.

Neutral evil is the most dangerous alignment because it represents pure evil without honor and without variation.

Chaotic Evil, “Destroyer”

A chaotic evil character does whatever his greed, hatred, and lust for destruction drive him to do. He is hot-tempered, vicious, arbitrarily violent, and unpredictable. If he is simply out for whatever he can get, he is ruthless and brutal. If he is committed to the spread of evil and chaos, he is even worse. Thankfully, his plans are haphazard, and any groups he joins or forms are poorly organized. Typically, chaotic evil people can be made to work together only by force, and their leader lasts only as long as he can thwart attempts to topple or assassinate him.

Chaotic evil is sometimes called “demonic” because demons are the epitome of chaotic evil.

Chaotic evil is the most dangerous alignment because it represents the destruction not only of beauty and life but also of the order on which beauty and life depend.

VITAL STATISTICS

Age

You can choose or randomly generate your character’s age. If you choose it, it must be at least the minimum age for the character’s race and class (see Table 8–1). Your character’s minimum starting age is the adulthood age of his race plus the number of dice indicated in the entry corresponding to the character’s race and class on Table 8–1.

Alternatively, roll the dice indicated on Table 8–1 and add the result to the adulthood number to determine
how old your character is.

With age, a character’s physical ability scores decrease and his mental ability scores increase (see Table 8–2). The effects of each aging step are cumulative. However, none of a character’s ability scores can be reduced below 1 in this way.

When a character reaches venerable age, secretly roll his maximum age—which is the number from the Venerable column on Table 8–2 plus the result of the dice roll indicated on the Maximum Age column on that table, and record the result, which the player does not know. A character who reaches his maximum age dies of old age at some time during the following year.

The maximum ages are for player characters. Most people in the world at large die from pestilence, accidents, infections, or violence before getting to venerable age.

Table 8–1: Random Starting Ages

Race Adulthood Barbarian, Rogue, Sorcerer Bard, Fighter, Paladin, Ranger Cleric, Druid, Monk, Wizard
Human 15 years +1d4 +1d6 +2d6
Dwarf 40 years +3d6 +5d6 +7d6
Elf 110 years +4d6 +6d6 +10d6
Gnome 40 years +4d6 +6d6 +9d6
Half-elf 20 years +1d6 +2d6 +3d6
Half-orc 14 years +1d4 +1d6 +2d6
Halfling 20 years +2d4 +3d6 +4d6

Table 8–2: Aging Effects

Race Middle Age1 Old2 Venerable3 Maximum Age
Human 35 years 53 years 70 years +2d20 years
Dwarf 125 years 188 years 250 years +2d% years
Elf 175 years 263 years 350 years +4d% years
Gnome 100 years 150 years 200 years +3d% years
Half-elf 62 years 93 years 125 years +3d20 years
Half-orc 30 years 45 years 60 years +2d10 years
Halfling 50 years 75 years 100 years +5d20 years
1 At middle age, –1 to Str, Dex, and Con; +1 to Int, Wis, and Cha.
2 At old age, –2 to Str, Dex, and Con; +1 to Int, Wis, and Cha.
3 At venerable age, –3 to Str, Dex, and Con; +1 to Int, Wis, and Cha.

Height and Weight

The dice roll given on Table 8–3 in the Height Modifier column determines the character’s extra height beyond the base height. That same number multiplied by the dice roll or quantity given in the Weight Modifier column determines the character’s extra weight beyond the base weight.

Table 8–3: Random Height and Weight

Race Base Height Height Modifier Base Weight Weight Modifier
Human, male 4 ft.–10 in. +2d10 in. 120 lb. × (2d4) lb.
Human, female 4 ft.–5 in. +2d10 in. 85 lb. × (2d4) lb.
Dwarf, male 3 ft.–9 in. +2d4 in. 150 lb. × (2d6) lb.
Dwarf, female 3 ft.–7 in. +2d4 in. 120 lb. × (2d6) lb.
Elf, male 5 ft.–2 in. +2d8 in. 100 lb. × (1d6) lb.
Elf, female 5 ft.–2 in. +2d6 in. 90 lb. × (1d6) lb.
Gnome, male 3 ft.–0 in. +2d4 in. 35 lb. × 1 lb.
Gnome, female 2 ft.–10 in. +2d4 in. 30 lb. × 1 lb.
Half-elf, male 5 ft.–0 in. +2d8 in. 110 lb. × (2d4) lb.
Half-elf, female 4 ft.–10 in. +2d8 in. 90 lb. × (2d4) lb.
Half-orc, male 4 ft.–10 in. +2d12 in. 150 lb. × (2d6) lb.
Half-orc, female 4 ft.–5 in. +2d12 in. 110 lb. × (2d6) lb.
Halfling, male 2 ft.–8 in. +2d4 in. 30 lb. × 1 lb.
Halfling, female 2 ft.–6 in. +2d4 in. 25 lb. × 1 lb.

Carrying Capacity

Encumbrance rules determine how much a character’s equipment slows him down. Encumbrance comes in two parts: encumbrance by armor and encumbrance by total weight.

Table 8–4: Carrying Capacity

Strength Score Light Load Medium Load Heavy Load
1 3 lb. Or less 4–6 lb. 7–10 lb.
2 6 lb. Or less 7–13 lb. 14–20 lb.
3 10 lb. Or less 11–20 lb. 21–30 lb.
4 13 lb. Or less 14–26 lb. 27–40 lb.
5 16 lb. Or less 17–33 lb. 34–50 lb.
6 20 lb. Or less 21–40 lb. 41–60 lb.
7 23 lb. Or less 24–46 lb. 47–70 lb.
8 26 lb. Or less 27–53 lb. 54–80 lb.
9 30 lb. Or less 31–60 lb. 61–90 lb.
10 33 lb. Or less 34–66 lb. 67–100 lb.
11 38 lb. Or less 39–76 lb. 77–115 lb.
12 43 lb. Or less 44–86 lb. 87–130 lb.
13 50 lb. Or less 51–100 lb. 101–150 lb.
14 58 lb. Or less 59–116 lb. 117–175 lb.
15 66 lb. Or less 67–133 lb. 134–200 lb.
16 76 lb. Or less 77–153 lb. 154–230 lb.
17 86 lb. Or less 87–173 lb. 174–260 lb.
18 100 lb. Or less 101–200 lb. 201–300 lb.
19 116 lb. Or less 117–233 lb. 234–350 lb.
20 133 lb. Or less 134–266 lb. 267–400 lb.
21 153 lb. Or less 154–306 lb. 307–460 lb.
22 173 lb. Or less 174–346 lb. 347–520 lb.
23 200 lb. Or less 201–400 lb. 401–600 lb.
24 233 lb. Or less 234–466 lb. 467–700 lb.
25 266 lb. Or less 267–533 lb. 534–800 lb.
26 306 lb. Or less 307–613 lb. 614–920 lb.
27 346 lb. Or less 347–693 lb. 694–1,040 lb.
28 400 lb. Or less 401–800 lb. 801–1,200 lb.
29 466 lb. Or less 467–933 lb. 934–1,400 lb.
+10 x4 x4 x4

Table 8–5: Carrying Loads

Speed
Load Max Dex Check Penalty (30 ft.) (20 ft.) Run
Medium +3 –3 20 ft. 15 ft. x4
Heavy +1 –6 20 ft. 15 ft. x3

Encumbrance by Armor

A character’s armor defines his maximum Dexterity bonus to AC, armor check penalty, speed, and running speed. Unless your character is weak or carrying a lot of gear, that’s all you need to know. The extra gear your character carries won’t slow him down any more than the armor already does.

If your character is weak or carrying a lot of gear, however, then you’ll need to calculate encumbrance by weight. Doing so is most important when your character is trying to carry some heavy object.

Weight: If you want to determine whether your character’s gear is heavy enough to slow him down more than the armor already does, total the weight of all the character’s items, including armor, weapons, and gear. Compare this total to the character’s Strength on Table 8–4. Depending on how the weight compares to the character’s carrying capacity, he or she may be carrying a light, medium, or heavy load. Like armor, a character’s load affects his maximum Dexterity bonus to AC, carries a check penalty (which works like an armor check penalty), reduces the character’s speed, and affects how fast the character can run, as shown on Table 8–5. A medium or heavy load counts as medium or heavy armor for the purpose of abilities or skills that are restricted by armor. Carrying a light load does not encumber a character.

If your character is wearing armor, use the worse figure (from armor or from load) for each category. Do not stack the penalties.

Lifting and Dragging

A character can lift as much as his maximum load over his head.

A character can lift as much as double his maximum load off the ground, but he or she can only stagger around with it. While overloaded in this way, the character loses any Dexterity bonus to AC and can move only 5 feet per round (as a full-round action).

A character can generally push or drag along the ground as much as f ive times his maximum load. Favorable conditions can double these numbers, and bad circumstances can reduce them to one-half or less.

tBigger and Smaller Creatures

The figures on Table 8–4 are for Medium bipedal creatures. A larger bipedal creature can carry more weight depending on its size category, as follows: Large ×2, Huge ×4, Gargantuan ×8, Colossal ×16. A smaller creature can carry less weight depending on its size category, as follows: Small ×¾, Tiny ×½, Diminutive ×¼, Fine ×1/8.

Quadrupeds can carry heavier loads than characters can. Instead of the multipliers given above, multiply the value corresponding to the creature’s Strength score from Table 8–4 by the appropriate modifier, as follows: Fine ×¼, Diminutive ×½, Tiny ×¾, Small ×1, Medium ×1-½, Large ×3, Huge ×6, Gargantuan ×12, Colossal ×24.

Tremendous Strength

For Strength scores not shown on Table 8–4, find the Strength score between 20 and 29 that has the same number in the “ones” digit as the creature’s Strength score does and multiply the numbers in that by 4 for every 10 points the creature’s Strength is above the score for that row.

Armor and Encumbrance for Other Base Speeds

The table below provides reduced speed figures for all base speeds from 20 feet to 100 feet (in 10-foot increments).

Base Speed Reduced Speed
20 ft. 15 ft.
30 ft. 20 ft.
40 ft. 30 ft.
50 ft. 35 ft.
60 ft. 40 ft.
70 ft. 50 ft.
80 ft. 55 ft.
90 ft. 60 ft.
100 ft. 70 ft.

Movement

There are three movement scales, as follows:

  • Tactical, for combat, measured in feet (or squares) per round.
  • Local, for exploring an area, measured in feet per minute.
  • Overland, for getting from place to place, measured in miles per hour or miles per day.

Modes of Movement

While moving at the different movement scales, creatures generally walk, hustle, or run.

Walk: A walk represents unhurried but purposeful movement at 3 miles per hour for an unencumbered human.

Hustle: A hustle is a jog at about 6 miles per hour for an unencumbered human. A character moving his speed twice in a single round, or moving that speed in the same round that he or she performs a standard action or another move action is hustling when he or she moves.

Run (×3): Moving three times speed is a running pace for a character in heavy armor. It represents about 9 miles per hour for a human in full plate.

Run (×4): Moving four times speed is a running pace for a character in light, medium, or no armor. It represents about 12 miles per hour for an unencumbered human, or 8 miles per hour for a human in chainmail.

Table 8–6: Movement and Distance

Speed
15 feet 20 feet 30 feet 40 feet
One Round (Tactical)1
Walk 15 ft. 20 ft. 30 ft. 40 ft.
Hustle 30 ft. 40 ft. 60 ft. 80 ft.
Run (x3) 45 ft. 60 ft. 90 ft. 120 ft.
Run (x4) 60 ft. 80 ft. 120 ft. 160 ft.
One Minute (Local)
Walk 150 ft. 200 ft. 300 ft. 400 ft.
Hustle 300 ft. 400 ft. 600 ft. 800 ft.
Run (x3) 450 ft. 600 ft. 900 ft. 1,200 ft.
Run (x4) 600 ft. 800 ft. 1,200 ft. 1,600 ft.
One Hour (Overland)
Walk 1-½ miles 2 miles 3 miles 4 miles
Hustle 3 miles 4 miles 6 miles 8 miles
Run
One Day (Overland)
Walk 12 miles 16 miles 24 miles 32 miles
Hustle
Run
1 Tactical movement is often measured in squares on the battle grid (1 square = 5 feet) rather than feet.

Tactical Movement

Use tactical movement for combat. Characters generally don’t walk during combat—they hustle or run. A character who moves his speed and takes some action is hustling for about half the round and doing something else the other half.

Table 8–7: Hampered Movement

Condition Additional Movement Cost
Difficult terrain x2
Obstacle1 x2
Poor visibility x2
Impassable
1 May require a skill check

Hampered Movement

Difficult terrain, obstacles, or poor visibility can hamper movement. When movement is hampered, each square moved into usually counts as two squares, effectively reducing the distance that a character can cover in a move.

If more than one condition applies, multiply together all additional costs that apply. This is a specific exception to the normal rule for doubling.

In some situations, your movement may be so hampered that you don’t have sufficient speed even to move 5 feet (1 square). In such a case, you may use a full-round action to move 5 feet (1 square) in any direction, even diagonally. Even though this looks like a 5-foot step, it’s not, and thus it provokes attacks of opportunity normally. (You can’t take advantage of this rule to move through impassable terrain or to move when all movement is prohibited to you.)

You can’t run or charge through any square that would hamper your movement.

Local Movement

Characters exploring an area use local movement, measured in feet per minute.

Walk

A character can walk without a problem on the local scale.

Hustle

A character can hustle without a problem on the local scale. See Overland Movement, below, for movement measured in miles per hour.

Run

A character with a Constitution score of 9 or higher can run for a minute without a problem. Generally, a character can run for a minute or two before having to rest for a minute

Table 8–8: Terrain and Overland Movement

Terrain Highway Road or Trail Trackless
Desert, sandy x1 x1/2 x1/2
Forest x1 x1 x1/2
Hills x1 x3/4 x1/2
Jungle x1 x3/4 x1/4
Moor x1 x1 x3/4
Mountains x3/4 x3/4 x1/2
Plains x1 x1 x3/4
Swamp x1 x3/4 x1/2
Tundra, frozen x1 x3/4 x3/4

Overland Movement

Characters covering long distances cross-country use overland movement. Overland movement is measured in miles per hour or miles per day. A day represents 8 hours of actual travel time. For rowed watercraft, a day represents 10 hours of rowing. For a sailing ship, it represents 24 hours.

Walk

A character can walk 8 hours in a day of travel without a problem. Walking for longer than that can wear him out (see Forced March).

Hustle

A character can hustle for 1 hour without a problem. Hustling for a second hour in between sleep cycles deals 1 point of nonlethal damage, and each additional hour deals twice the damage taken during the previous hour of hustling. A character who takes any nonlethal damage from hustling becomes fatigued

A fatigued character can’t run or charge and takes a penalty of –2 to Strength and Dexterity. Eliminating the nonlethal damage also eliminates the fatigue.

Run

A character can’t run for an extended period of time. Attempts to run and rest in cycles effectively work out to a hustle.

Terrain

The terrain through which a character travels affects how much distance he or she can cover in an hour or a day (see Table 8–8). A highway is a straight, major, paved road. A road is typically a dirt track. A trail is like a road, except that it allows only single-file travel and does not benefit a party traveling with vehicles. Trackless terrain is a wild area with no paths.

Forced March

In a day of normal walking, a character walks for 8 hours. The rest of the daylight time is spent making and breaking camp, resting, and eating.

A character can walk for more than 8 hours in a day by making a forced march. For each hour of marching beyond 8 hours, a Constitution check (DC 10, +2 per extra hour) is required. If the check fails, the character takes 1d6 points of nonlethal damage. A character who takes any nonlethal damage from a forced march becomes fatigued. Eliminating the nonlethal damage also eliminates the fatigue. It’s possible for a character to march into unconsciousness by pushing himself too hard.

Table 8–9: Mounts and Vehicles

Mount/Vehicle Per Hour Per Day
Mount (carrying load)
Light horse or light warhorse 6 miles 48 miles
Light horse (151–450 lb.)1 4 miles 32 miles
Light warhorse (231–690 lb.)1 4 miles 32 miles
Heavy horse or heavy warhorse 5 miles 40 miles
Heavy horse (201–600 lb.)1 3-½ miles 28 miles
Heavy warhorse (301–900 lb.)1 3-½ miles 28 miles
Pony or warpony 4 miles 32 miles
Pony (76–225 lb.)1 3 miles 24 miles
Warpony (101–300 lb.)1 3 miles 24 miles
Donkey or mule 3 miles 24 miles
Donkey (51–150 lb.)1 2 miles 16 miles
Mule (231–690 lb.)1 2 miles 16 miles
Dog, riding 4 miles 32 miles
Dog, riding (101–300 lb.)1 3 miles 24 miles
Cart or wagon 2 miles 16 miles
Ship
Raft or barge (poled or towed)2 ½ mile 5 miles
Keelboat (rowed)2 1 mile 10 miles
Rowboat (rowed)2 1-½ miles 15 miles
Sailing ship (sailed) 2 miles 48 miles
Warship (sailed and rowed) 2-½ miles 60 miles
Longship (sailed and rowed) 3 miles 72 miles
Galley (rowed and sailed) 4 miles 96 miles
1 Quadrupeds, such as horses, can carry heavier loads than characters can. See Carrying Capacity, above, for more information.
2 Rafts, barges, keelboats, and rowboats are used on lakes and rivers.
If going downstream, add the speed of the current (typically 3 miles per hour) to the speed of the vehicle. In addition to 10 hours of being rowed, the vehicle can also float an additional 14 hours, if someone can guide it, so add an additional 42 miles to the daily distance traveled. These vehicles can’t be rowed against any significant current, but they can be pulled upstream by draft animals on the shores.

Mounted Movement

A mount bearing a rider can move at a hustle. The damage it takes when doing so, however, is lethal damage, not nonlethal damage. The creature can also be ridden in a forced march, but its Constitution checks automatically fail, and, again, the damage it takes is lethal damage. Mounts also become fatigued when they take any damage from hustling or forced marches.

See Table: Mounts and Vehicles for mounted speeds and speeds for vehicles pulled by draft animals.

Waterborne Movement: See Table: Mounts and Vehicles for speeds for water vehicles.

Evasion and Pursuit

In round-by-round movement, when simply counting off squares, it’s impossible for a slow character to get away from a determined fast character without mitigating circumstances. Likewise, it’s no problem for a fast character to get away from a slower one.

When the speeds of the two concerned characters are equal, there’s a simple way to resolve a chase: If one creature is pursuing another, both are moving at the same speed, and the chase continues for at least a few rounds, Have them make opposed Dexterity checks to see who is the faster over those rounds. If the creature being chased wins, it escapes. If the pursuer wins, it catches the fleeing creature.

Sometimes a chase occurs overland and could last all day, with the two sides only occasionally getting glimpses of each other at a distance. In the case of a long chase, an opposed constitution check made by all parties determines which can keep pace the longest. If the creature being chased rolls the highest, it gets away. If not, the chaser runs down its prey, outlasting it with stamina.

EXPLORATION

There are a few rules that are vital to the success of any adventurer, including vision, lighting, and how to break things. Each of these rules is referenced here.

Vision and Light

Dwarves and half-orcs have darkvision, but everyone else needs light to see by. See Table 8–10 for the radius that a light source illuminates and how long it lasts.

In an area of bright light, all characters can see clearly. A creature can’t hide in an area of bright light unless it is invisible or has cover.

In an area of shadowy illumination, a character can see dimly. Creatures within this area have concealment relative to that character. A creature in an area of shadowy illumination can make a Stealth check to conceal itself.

In areas of darkness, creatures without darkvision are effectively blinded. In addition to the obvious effects, a blinded creature has a 50% miss chance in combat (all opponents have total concealment), loses any Dexterity bonus to AC, takes a –2 penalty to AC, and takes a –4 penalty on sight-based Perception checks and most Strength and Dexterity-based skill checks.

Characters with low-light vision (elves, gnomes, and half-elves) can see objects twice as far away as the given radius. Double the effective radius of bright light and of shadowy illumination for such characters.

Characters with darkvision (dwarves and half-orcs) can see lit areas normally as well as dark areas within 60 feet. A creature can’t hide within 60 feet of a character with darkvision unless it is invisible or has cover.

Breaking and Entering

When attempting to break an object, you have two choices: smash it with a weapon or break it with sheer strength.

Smashing an Object

Smashing a weapon or shield with a slashing or bludgeoning weapon is accomplished by the sunder combat maneuver.
Smashing an object is a lot like sundering a weapon or shield, except that your combat maneuver check is opposed by the object’s AC. Generally, you can smash an object only with a bludgeoning or slashing weapon.

Armor Class

Objects are easier to hit than creatures because they usually don’t move, but many are tough enough to shrug off some damage from each blow. An object’s Armor Class is equal to 10 + its size modifier (see Table 8–11) + its Dexterity modifier. An inanimate object has not only a Dexterity of 0 (–5 penalty to AC), but also an additional –2 penalty to its AC. Furthermore, if you take a full-round action to line up a shot, you get an automatic hit with a melee weapon and a +5 bonus on attack rolls with a ranged weapon.

Hardness

Each object has hardness—a number that represents how well it resists damage. Whenever an object takes damage, subtract its hardness from the damage. Only damage in excess of its hardness is deducted from the object’s hit points (see Table 8–12, Table 8–13, and Table 8–14).

Hit Points

An object’s hit point total depends on what it is made of and how big it is (see Table 8–12, Table 8–13, and Table 8–14). Objects that take damage gain the broken condition. When an object’s hit points reach 0, it’s ruined. Very large objects have separate hit point totals for different sections.

Energy Attacks: Acid and sonic attacks deal damage to most objects just as they do to creatures; roll damage and apply it normally after a successful hit. Electricity and fire attacks deal half damage to most objects; divide the damage dealt by 2 before applying the hardness. Cold attacks deal one-quarter damage to most objects; divide the damage dealt by 4 before applying the hardness.

Ranged Weapon Damage: Objects take half damage from ranged weapons (unless the weapon is a siege engine or something similar). Divide the damage dealt by 2 before applying the object’s hardness.

Ineffective Weapons: Certain weapons just can’t effectively deal damage to certain objects.

Immunities: Objects are immune to nonlethal damage and to critical hits.
Even animated objects, which are otherwise considered creatures, have these immunities because they are constructs.

Magic Armor, Shields, and Weapons: Each +1 of enhancement bonus adds 2 to the hardness of armor, a weapon, or a shield and +10 to the item’s hit points.

Vulnerability to Certain Attacks: Certain attacks are especially successful against some objects. In such cases, attacks deal double their normal damage and may ignore the object’s hardness.

Damaged Objects: A damaged object remains functional with the broken condition until the item’s hit points are reduced to 0, at which point it is destroyed.
Damaged (but not destroyed) objects can be repaired with the Craft skill and a number of spells.

Saving Throws

Nonmagical, unattended items never make saving throws. They are considered to have failed their saving throws, so they always are affected by spells. An item attended by a character (being grasped, touched, or worn) makes saving throws as the character (that is, using the character’s saving throw bonus).

Magic items always get saving throws. A magic item’s Fortitude, Reflex, and Will save bonuses are equal to 2 + one-half its caster level. An attended magic item either makes saving throws as its owner or uses its own saving throw bonus, whichever is better.

Animated Objects: Animated objects count as creatures for purposes of determining their Armor Class (do not treat them as inanimate objects).

Breaking Items

When a character tries to break something with sudden force rather than by dealing damage, use a Strength check (rather than an attack roll and damage roll, as with the sunder special attack) to see whether he succeeds. The DC depends more on the construction of the item than on the material.

If an item has lost half or more of its hit points, the DC to break it drops by 2.

Larger and smaller creatures get size bonuses and size penalties on Strength checks to break open doors as follows: Fine –16, Diminutive –12, Tiny –8, Small –4, Large +4, Huge +8, Gargantuan +12, Colossal +16.

A crowbar or portable ram improves a character’s chance of breaking open a door.

Table 8–10: Light Sources and Illumination

Object Bright Shadowy Duration
Candle n/a1 5 ft. 1 hr.
Everburning torch 20 ft. 40 ft. Permanent
Lamp, common 15 ft. 30 ft. 6 hr./pint
Lantern, bullseye2 60-ft. Cone 120-ft. Cone 6 hr./pint
Lantern, hooded 30 ft. 60 ft. 6 hr./pint
Sunrod 30 ft. 60 ft. 6 hr.
Torch 20 ft. 40 ft. 1 hr.
Spell Bright Shadowy Duration
Continual flame 20 ft. 40 ft. Permanent
Dancing lights (torches) 20 ft. (each) 40 ft. (each) 1 min.
Daylight 60 ft. 120 ft. 30 min.
Light 20 ft. 40 ft. 10 min.
1 A candle does not provide bright illumination, only shadowy illumination.
2 A bullseye lantern illuminates a cone, not a radius.

Table 8–11: Size and Armor Class of Objects

~Size AC Modifier
Colossal –8
Gargantuan –4
Huge –2
Large –1
Medium +0
Small +1
Tiny +2
Diminutive +4
Fine +8

Table 8–12: Common Armor, Weapon, and Shield Hardness and Hit Points

Weapon or Shield Hardness HP1
Light blade 10 2
One-handed blade 10 5
Two-handed blade 10 10
Light metal-hafted weapon 10 10
One-handed metal-hafted weapon 10 20
Light hafted weapon 5 2
One-handed hafted weapon 5 5
Two-handed hafted weapon 5 10
Projectile weapon 5 5
Armor special2 armor bonus × 5
Buckler 10 5
Light wooden shield 5 7
Heavy wooden shield 5 15
Light steel shield 10 10
Heavy steel shield 10 20
Tower shield 5 20
1 The hp value given is for Medium armor, weapons, and shields. Divide by 2 for each size category of the item smaller than Medium, or multiply it by 2 for each size category larger than Medium.
2 Varies by material; see Table: Substance Hardness and Hit Points.

Table 8–13: Substance Hardness and Hit Points

Substance Hardness Hit Points
Glass 1 1/inch of thickness
Paper or cloth 0 2/inch of thickness
Rope 0 2/inch of thickness
Ice 0 3/inch of thickness
Leather or hide 2 5/inch of thickness
Wood 5 10/inch of thickness
Stone 8 15/inch of thickness
Iron or steel 10 30/inch of thickness
Mithral 15 30/inch of thickness
Adamantine 20 40/inch of thickness

Table 8–14: Object Hardness and Hit Points

Object Hardness Hit Points Break DC
Rope (1 inch diam.) 0 2 23
Simple wooden door 5 10 13
Small chest 5 1 17
Good wooden door 5 15 18
Treasure chest 5 15 23
Strong wooden door 5 20 23
Masonry wall (1 ft. thick) 8 90 35
Hewn stone (3 ft. thick) 8 540 50
Chain 10 5 26
Manacles 10 10 26
Masterwork manacles 10 10 28
Iron door (2 in. thick) 10 60 28

Table 8–15: DCs to Break or Burst Items

Strength Check to: DC
Break down simple door 13
Break down good door 18
Break down strong door 23
Burst rope bonds 23
Bend iron bars 24
Break down barred door 25
Burst chain bonds 26
Break down iron door 28
Condition DC Adjustment1
Hold portal +5
Arcane lock +10
1 If both apply, use the larger number.